Jet Fuel From Sea Water

The-US-Navy-Intends-to-Turn-Sea-Water-into-Jet-Fuel
U.S. Navy Aircraft Carriers to transport production and delivery system for producing jet fuel made from Sea Water

In an uncharacteristic and equally bold move by U.S. Defense Military Researchers are hoping to take advantage of the vast potential of safe, zero-emissions, low-cost energy that comes from 4th generation nuclear reactors. Naval Research Laboratories in Florida has successfully developed a technology that synthesizes jet fuel from only sea water and electricity.
With all of their ships and planes, the navy has become hopelessly dependant by neccessity on both diesel and jet fuel. Unfortunately, many of the regions that contain large sources of petroleum, have political interests in direct opposition to the United States. This dependancy is also increasingly expensive and more often than not detrimental to the environment.
A team headed by Heather Willauer at Naval Research Laboratories has over a period of 12 years formulated a technique that can use carbon dioxide/hydrogen from seawater and electricity from small modular nuclear reactors found aboard some navy ships to synthesize both F-76 diesel and JP-5 jet fuel.

Ocean water is subjected to a reverse osmosis procedure that produces fresh water, the process takes place in situ at sea where there is abundant resource of water and can’t simply start with fresh water.The second process separates out all the fresh water’s atoms then, the hydrogen meets with the carbon dioxide from the first step to all go through a catalytic conversion procedure that results in water, heat and fuel. The water and heat can be used to help power the process itself or used elsewhere on the ship.The process will require some kind of seperate power source with Ocean thermal energy conversion or nuclear power being the main contenders to keep the machinery running.

German Concept Car that Runs on Salt Water
Concept Car from Germany runs on Salt Water

By temporarily lowering the pH of the seawater to a value of 4.5 and removing 92% of the carbon dioxide, the CO2 along with elemental hydrogen from electrolysis runs through a specialized catalyst that synthesizes longer hydrocarbon chains. This produces a fuel that is far superior to the product currently being used by the Navy. Though it takes about 23,000 gallons of water to produce 1 gallon of JP-5 jet fuel, using available technology we can potentially manufacture 41,000 gallons per day from a single ship carrying a 100mW reactor. The entire navy fleet could be fueled with roughly 5 vessels carrying these systems, and they do not necessarily need to be devoted fuel manufacturing vessels .A cost analysis for the navy reactors puts the price of delivered fuel using this new fuel synthesis system at ~$2.90 which is much friendlier than the current ~$7.00+. With higher-temperature 4th generation reactor designs, this price could substantially be reduced, due to the fact that water dissociates at the high operating temperatures of these reactors thus making electrolysis redundant.

jetfuel-1
What Jet Fuel Looks Like

Almost all of the research and experimentation behind the chemical concept has been successfuly completed, including the catalyzers, membranes, fuel synthesis and specifications. Now engineering issues of scaling up,fortifying and mobilizing the technology are the paramount concerns in making synthesized fuel available to our navy and military.
Its Military Applications aside, here we have the potential to provide consumers with carbon-neutral transportation fuels that are not subject to supply and demand?  Electricity from nuclear power is currently more expensive for civilians than it is for military, so an analysis puts the price for transportation fuels from civilian power at $5.90 per gallon, which is substantially more than a gallon of fossil-derived gasoline. The price is worth it when you consider the potential to supersede the existant petro-reliant global economy and the world-wide adoption of a fuel from a carbon-neutral source.

electrolytication-exchange-module
E-CEM Carbon Capture Skid. Electrolytication-exchange-module

Nuclear energy has the distinguished potential of being able to profitably synthesize transportation fuels from gasoline to methanol which can be used in place of diesel. By synthesizing fuel, we will no longer be a slave to digging holes in the ground to fuel our transportation infrastructure. The oil and fossil fuel companies will lose their monopoly on record profits from fluctuations in a market based on a finite resource, energy will simply be too abundant.

Delivering Drugs via wi-fi into the Brain

implantable-drug-delivery-systems-1
Implantable Drug Delivery System

Dr. Michael Bruchas is a senior researcher on the team responsible for technology that has been developed in the form of a microchip implant that allows drugs to be administered to the brain. What’s next? -Video games intravenously injected into children’s veins? What does this new technology mean for main stream science and what challenging questions does it pose for neuroethicists. With rapid technological advancements like these that interfere with complex autonomous organic structures, serious moral and ethical questions abound, impinging on the field of ethics.

Though this particular device has only been tested in mice a new implant has been developed by a team of researchers that wirelessly delivers drugs to the brain without any contribution from the patient. One has to ask will the chip also be able to transmit information such as: medical history; make analysis, and possess the capacity and authority to administer a Direct Debit account to make payments for treatment. Bruchas looks forward to the future, and hopes such devices will one day be used in human subjects.micropumps-2

Minuscule in design,no wider than a human hair, and as imperceptible. The device is a marriage of brain implants with a remote control drug delivery system with the capacity to genetically modify individual neurons (which has Civil Liberties analysts reeling). To demonstrate the amount of control this device has over a brain, investigators made mice walk in circles by injecting a morphine-like drug directly into their ventral tegmental area (VTA), a brain region responsible for motivation and reward.
This newest advancement compares to previous techniques used on psychiatric patients in the Archaic 70’s whereby electrodes or injections of substances were directed into the brains of humans and animals

Dr. Frederic Gilbert, a Bioethicists at the Australian Research Council, councils caution. “As in many fields, the ethical questions are often raised too late in the development of novel technologies; optogenetics is no stranger to this.”

A mouse's memory is recorded by sensors connected to its head East China Normal University in Shanghai
A mouse’s memory is recorded by sensors connected to its head East China Normal University in Shanghai

Opto-genetics is a branch of neuro-science that uses photostimulation to control neurons that have been genetically sensitized to light. This new device has optogenetic capability. This raises several ethical questions, such as, does being an optogenetically implanted person make you ‘other’ than human? With respect to the new wireless implant, who or what will control administration of the drugs? If it’s an automated system there is no oversight in real-time as it were, how does the patient retain a sense of agency?

Obtaining consent from human patients, if the technology were to cross-over to human use, could prove problematic especially if they’re mentally ill. Which poses another question: What kind of drugs will be dispensed and for what purposes? Serious moral objections to the non-medical use of cognitive enhancement pharmaceuticals such as Adderall and Ritalin—that make people “speedier” and more focused—have been made in the past. These drugs are argued to give people an edge over everyone else, and only those with resources can access them. Call on scientists to keep in mind the somber history of neuro-science and psycho-surgery.

Electro-Shock-Therapy rears its Ugly Head
Electro-shock-Therapy Rears Its Ugly Head

In the 30s and ’40s, doctors and the press extolled electro-shock therapy and frontal lobe lobotomy as miracle treatments; even President John F. Kennedy’s sister, Rosemary, was lobotomized. Nevertheless these treatments were adopted by the criminality and the medical constabulary alike in the torture of marginalized people. And also its use by the CIA in the research of Mind control and behavior manipulation, irreparably damaging to the recipients.
While we shouldn’t let this history prevent us from acknowledging the benefits these

disciplines have produced and their potential to alleviate human suffering in the future, it is also a sober reminder that breakthrough scientists can be selectively naive about the purposes to which their discoveries are likely to be put.
In defence of this technology Bruchas submits- “We are developing this with the intent of helping mental health disorders and neurological disease. We’re putting this knowledge out there with the idea that this is going to help people.”
Although hopeful, Bruchas remains cautious with regards to the potential magnitude of his work. “You do want to be thinking about these issues because this space does move very rapidly, and if it moves too rapidly without taking a step back and thinking about it, that’s a risk you take.”

George Orwell was Right: The Future is 1984

‘Where Federal policies have been designed to reflect behavioral science insights, they have substantially improved outcomes for the individuals, families, communities, and businesses those policies serve. For example, automatic enrollment and automatic escalation in retirement savings plans have made it easier to save for the future, and have helped Americans accumulate billions of dollars in additional retirement savings. Similarly, streamlining the application process for Federal financial aid has made college more financially accessible for millions of students-.’

-Or Life according to DAARPA.

‘….To more fully realize the benefits of behavioral insights and deliver better results at a lower cost for the American people, the Federal Government should design its policies and programs to reflect our best understanding of how people engage with, participate in, use, and respond to those policies and programs. By improving the effectiveness and efficiency of Government, behavioral science insights can support a range of national priorities, including helping workers to find better jobs; enabling Americans to lead longer, healthier lives; improving access to educational opportunities and support for success in school; and accelerating the transition to a low-carbon economy.’

So reads the latest Executive Order sold to the Presidency by the Military Industrial Complex.

Psy-Op Amerika: Enlightenment and Propaganda. The latest catch-phrase in the campaign to establish the New Order of the Ages. This New Deal reads like a vulgarisation of Nazi Germany’s Ministry of Enlightenment and Propaganda and the Soviet Union’s Ministry of Inside Things. The Executive order is being Marketed to the general Public by President Obama as-
“Using Behavioral Science Insights to Better Serve the American People.” What he really means is the mobilisation of Government forces for systematic use of Behavior Modification and Brain Washing on the General Public. The Nazi’s it seems didn’t lose the war they just moved to America.”

Psychological Operations or more commonly: Psy-ops are ostensibly Procedures to carry specific information and trigger audiences to influence their emotions, motives, objective reasoning, and ultimately the behavior of organizations, groups, and individuals. The mechanics of which are detailed in the Military Psychological Operations Manual.

The Document explains that a growing body of evidence demonstrates that research findings from fields such as behavioral economics and the psychology of decision making and how people act on them can be used to design government policies to better serve the American people ( Read here: The Corporate interests of the Aristocracy). Prepare to be “nudged.”

Named ‘nudging’ after ‘Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth, and Happiness, the book co-authored by Cass Sunstein, who incidently is a former administrator of Obama’s Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs. The high concept extropolates that the government can make something that they want to occur the default action. There will be an allusion of choice that may offer a recipient an alternative, but it will be made to be costly and timely. They’ll make their options seem like the correct ones but in reality they will be the only choice. Employing semantics. (i.e. calling Obamacare a “tax,” in place of a “penalty” if you refuse to sign up.
For example, they might make people think it’s their own idea to be afraid of guns, to want to be vaccinated, and to restrict the use of utilities for the greater good, promoting a lack of critical thinking.
Behavior modification and crowd control are now official policies of the US Government, and soon the world.
Media advertising and the use of subliminal messages to manipulate the viewer into behaving in a certain way is nothing new. Now, it’s officially the policy of the American government to psychologically manipulate the public. The desired ideologies of the ruling classes will be reinforced by media, entertainment, popular culture, and the government. The Global populace will be little more than test subjects of psychological experiments without their knowledge and consent.

Point of fact: Facebook had been secretly experimenting with manipulating its account holders by inserting certain things in their time line to manipulate their moods? Expect this behavior on a broader and more targeted scale from every possible direction now, because it’s official policy.
A fact sheet sent out by the White House shows that researchers at numerous universities and think tanks — from MIT, Harvard, and the Brookings Institute, have signed on to the program.

The groundwork was laid in 2013, Fox News reported that the White House had created a “Behavioral Insights Team” to influence the actions and opinions of the American people. From the 2013 White House document seeking behavioral scientists to implement the plan, this is based on a similar program in the UK.
A growing body of evidence suggests that insights from the social and behavioral sciences can be used to help design public policies that work better, cost less, and help people to achieve their goals. The practice of using behavioral insights to inform policy has been highly successful overseas. In 2010, UK Prime Minister David Cameron commissioned the Behavioural Insights Team (BIT), which through a process of rapid, iterative experimentation has successfully identified and tested interventions that will further advance priorities of the British government.

The federal government is currently creating a new team that will help build federal capacity to experiment with these approaches, and to scale behavioral interventions that have been rigorously evaluated, using, where possible, randomized controlled trials.

The Planet of the Apes is Now!

Monkey See, Monkey Do
Monkey See, Monkey Do

Like something out of a Philip K. Dick novel, Scientists have formed a neural network linking the brains of monkeys and rats in two separate experiments, allowing them to co-operate and learn as a hive-mind or collective consciousness. Reminiscent of the three Wise Monkeys- See no Evil, Hear No Evil Speak No Evil, Scientists have linked together the brains of three monkeys, with the objective of collectively controlling an avatar arm. What does that mean for the advancement of Humanity and Trans-humanism?
In research that raises the prospect of direct brain-to-brain interfaces in humans, the brains of four rats were wired together in a network, enabling the rodents to synchronise their brain activity and collectively solve a simple weather forecasting problem that the braincomputerinterfacerats struggled to complete on their own. The experiments, ultimately promise direct brain to brain communication between humans albeit through technological means, through the intervention of a Brain\ Machine Interface. First proposed by Miguel Nicolelis, of the Duke University in an attempt at allowing amputees and the paralysed to directly control prosthetic limbs and exo-skeletons. These latest advancements could have clinical benefits in brain manipulation and bio-computing. That is a collective brain bank of living organisms not unlike the concepts of the ‘Noosphere‘ first postulated by Pierre Teilhard de Chardin in 1922.
These experiments are the most convincing demonstration yet that monkeybrainsbrains, in this case those of animals, can be linked together in direct communication to solve problems. Essentially forming a super-brain, a collective brain created from three monkey brains, which has never been accomplished before.
In the first study, scientists fitted three rhesus macaque monkeys with arrays that could record electrical activity from hundreds of neurons in the motor region of the brain. The monkeys learned, independently, to control the 3D movements of an avatar arm shown on a digital display in front of them, just by imagining moving it. The monkeys were then given joint control of the arm, with each monkey able to control two out of three dimensions, along the x- and y-axis, and their activity made an even contribution to each. Further along in the experiment,the monkeys intuitively started to synchronise their brain activity, allowing them to move the arm collaboratively to reach for a virtual ball on the screen. Even though their brains were not directly wired together.
catbrainThe scientists via two-way electrical connections also successfully linked the brains of rats together that allowed for both the delivery of outside stimulus to neurons and record electrical activity. The system appeared to work, even if one of the three monkeys was temporarily distracted. In another experiment an electrical impulse was delivered to the brain of one rat, and the other rats having synchronised their brain activity, copied the first rat’s brain response, experiencing what the first rat felt, by proxy.
Electro-magnetic Pulses that were intermittently increased ordecreased were delivered to the brains of individual rats, these were identified by the collective hive-mind as representing temperature and barometric pressure information. The rats were able to combine the information to produce a collective output that predicted an increased or decreased chance of rain. Rats scored better on this task when they were linked as a “brain net”, than when individual rats tried to combine the two pieces of initial information – temperature and pressure – to perform the simple calculation alone. The research may be extended to produce neurally connected rat packs with combined super-intelligence.

Computer Brain Interface
Computer Brain Interface

In the future the research could have tremendous benefits for brain rehabilitation in the field of neuro-science. Take for example in Stroke patients, where language abilities might be able to be restored more quickly if a patient’s brain was retrained by directly synchronising with the language regions of the brain of a healthy person. In humans, the link could potentially be made non-invasively using electrodes on the scalp. However at this stage it is unlikely that humans would ever be able to directly share complex mental experiences. The research shows that it is impossible to upload and or download your emotions or personality to a brain-net, as these are not reducible to a digital algorithm.

Computer\Brain Interface
Computer\Brain Interface

Ultimately, people may also decide that wiring themselves up with others whether in a social network or a utilitarian relationship is not entirely desirable. There may be special instances where you’d want a long-term connection with someone – like a Tight- knit Family or a Fire Brigade, But there’s no guarantee that brain-to-brain interfaces will be a sensible thing in practice. Which opens the Pandora’s box of privacy and legislation and the ethics that may or may not support this technology.

Jurassic Mars

Mineral Mining Operation on Earth
Mineral Mining Operation on Earth

About 95 per cent of the world’s opals are mined in Australia’s Red Centre. But scientists now believe they might also exist off-world on Mars.  Scientists believe that Mars may have weathering conditions conducive to opal formation similiar to that of the Earth’s ancient past.  Climactic conditions that created opal in Australia roughly 100 million years ago closely resemble what scientists know about Mars.

Australia’s Great Artisian Basin, once covered by an inland sea, began drying out about 100 million years ago. As this regressed an  period of acidic weathering occured, caused by the exposed pyrite minerals, releasing sulphuric acid.  As the surface cracked, silica-rich gel became trapped in the veins in the rock, which was later covered and protected from weathering by secondary minerals. This allowed the silica to solidify to form opals.  The only other area where similar conditions have been observed is on the surface of Mars.

The Mars Rock Harboring  Fragments of Fire Opal
The Mars Rock Harboring Fragments of Fire Opal

Scientists, with the aid of advances in technological research, have discovered direct physical evidence of the existence of Martian Opal found in a Meteorite that fell to Earth from Mars in 1911. Traces of the opal known on Earth as fire opal could very well be an indicator of the existence of microbial life on the surface of Mars. Opals are often found around hot springs where microbial life can thrive, gemstones can trap and preserve these microbes for millions of years.  The volcanic rocks that make up the meteorite are 1.3 billion years old.

Fire Opal
Fire Opal

The opal was discovered in a portion of Meteorite known as Nakhla, supplied by the Natural History Museum of London by a University of Glasgow team. As well as physical traces of secondary minerals created by water interacting with the minerals olivine and augite. Nakhla was named for the Egyptian town El Nakhla El Bahariya where it was found in 1911, having been ejected from Mars by a massive impact of as yet unknown origin. Supporting the Bid for the existence of Martian Life, several years ago, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter revealed Martian rocks containing a hydrated mineral similar to opal, likely created by the interaction of water with silica. The cumulated data, from rovers, orbital missions and earth-based analyses of Martian meteorites, is providing yet more evidence of Mars’ geological history.  It is the first time that a piece of Mars on Earth has been found to contain opal. It is also supportive of the theory that Water once flowed freely on the Red Planet.

The Shape of Life on Mars
The Shape of Life on Mars

Mars appears to be a dry, barren planet, but the alien world is also remarkably humid, this humidity could be enough to support life, but only if if the water condenses to form short-term puddles in the early morning hours. The discovery of fire Opal fragments within the meteorite is significant due to the fact that it corroborates findings from Nasa’s imaging and exploration of the Martian surface which appeared to show deposits of opal. If Martian microbes existed, it’s possible they too may be preserved in opal deposits on the surface of Mars. Closer study of Martian opals by future missions to Mars could well help us learn more about the planet’s past and whether it once held life.

The future of warfare is Here!

DARPA-Drone
DARPA-Drone

War has become the greatest instigator for the advancement of science in this the 21st Century. Developments as diverse and far-reaching as space travel, superglue, duct tape and microwaves owe their origins to inovations of the Military Industrial Complex and its advancement into the domestic landscape.
Soldiers will be trained in simulated theaters of war via virtual reality
Their bodies augmented with self-healing armor and smart suits
Armed with guns that fire bullets that change course on in situ to its target
Supported by micro-drones allowing combatants to explore battlefields from a distance

Soldiers can now explore war time scenarios, through the use of

Military Applications for Virtual Reality
Military Applications for Virtual Reality

head-mounted displays (HMD) or VR glasses such as Oculus Rift. Simulations include the administering of first aid to wounded comrades while under enemy fire, in a realistic 360-degree 3D environments that change view with the movement of the head and the body, by an in built tracking system. Troops are also training with integrated feedback that administers a small electric shock when the soldier gets ‘shot’.
The US Department of Defense is so committed to the project it wants every soldier to have a customised virtual avatar modified to reflect their individual skills and weaknesses.
Military Grade Super suits or exo skeletons are also now a reality. These toughened outer scafolds are inspired by the hardened shells of the insect world and involve a frame of hydraulics which amplify the leg and arm movements of the wearer, allowing them to take more effortless strides and carry greater weights. This made lifting 25lb (11kg) loads as easy for the wearer as lifting 1lb (0.5kg), and had force feedback – similar to a XBox or PlayStation controller – so the operator could get an idea of the resistance that the soldier was

Military Insect Drone
Military Insect Drone

experiencing.
While many current exoskeleton projects have medical uses in mind, XOS and XOS 2, developed for the US Army by Raytheon-Sarcos, Hercule by firm RB3D, and Human Universal Load Carrier, better known by its acronym HULC, are primarily military. As with the Hulc developed by Ekso Bionics and Lockheed Martin, is a lower extremity exoskeleton powered by a lithium-ion battery that works to redistribute the weight across the hips and legs, allowing its operator to comfortably carry 200lbs (91kg) with less effort.
Far more flexible than earlier exoskeletons, sensors mounted throughout Hulc’s titanium frame and linked to an on-board microcomputer spur electric motors into action allowing the limbs to match the operator’s movements. Lockheed’s ambitions is that the system will allow for troops to be equipped with otherwise back-breakingly heavy sensor gear or – as Hulc offers no physical protection in itself – the sort of body armor that simply impractical for a soldier on foot to carry.

HULC_Exo-skeleton
HULC_Exo-skeleton

‘The basic problem with exoskeletons still is you need about ten kilowatts of power to run a typical load-bearing, armor-protected exo-skeleton.The Soldier needs to be able to run it for ten hours to make it mission capable because if the power runs out, an exoskeleton becomes a massive impediment to ability rather than a bonus. Concurrently Lockheed is investigating electro-chemical and solid oxide fuel cells to solve this problem, of developing a ‘long-range HLC’ with a 72-hour battery life and bursts of speed up to 10mph (16 km) per hour.
Meanwhile, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (Darpa) is testing Warrior Web – a wetsuit-like ‘soft exosuit’ designed to be worn under the soldier’s uniform to provide leg and joint support on only 100 watts of power. Alternatively Warrior Web Replaces the titanium frame of battery-sapping hydraulics, with computer-controlled textiles and wires that provide orthopaedic support as well as powered robotic systems in the legs reducing fatigue.

Raytheon-XOS-2-Exoskeleton
Raytheon-XOS-2-Exoskeleton

Also being developed is Armour augmentation. There are ongoing experiments in liquid armor, for example, which harden on impact but remain flexible enough to allow the soldier free movement, and nanotechnology, which allows materials to be manipulated at atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale. In a liquid armor body system liquid hardens on impact in its products. The liquid is called Shear-Thickening Fluid (STF), and instantly hardens upon impact at any temperature, this provides protection from penetration by high-speed projectiles and additionally dispersing energy over a larger area.
Weaponised Nano-technology. In Engineering products to a nano-scale you can create vastly more resistant and strong materials, because they don’t have any imperfections and you can design a lattice structure instead of having to either kiln something or cast something. Carbon fibre-infused ceramics can effectively be developed at a nano-scale using these principles. A perfect lattice structure can be built resulting in a seamless integration between materials so it’s more stronger than something that’s made using more typical engineering methods.
Called Exacto The US military successfully tested a .50-caliber

Exacto: The Bullet that Never Misses
Exacto: The Bullet that Never Misses

sniper round that can alter its course mid-flight on its way to its target, changing direction in mid-air in response to a target’s movements. In response for military snipers, acquiring moving targets in unfavourable conditions, such as high winds and dusty terrain commonly found in Afghanistan, is extremely challenging with current technology, Darpa has developed the first ever guided small caliber bullet.
The main focus of these super soldier weapons systems for standard infantry is going to be an array of sensors. For example combinations of thermal and infrared vision aids for night vision. At the moment soldiers tend to use infrared, your standard green night vision to see and move around, but when they’re actually engaging targets at night, they use a thermal.

With the advancement of technology and the escalating trend

Sergeant Scott Weaver, of The Queens Royal Lancers launches a Black Hornet, Nano UAV
Sergeant Scott Weaver, of The Queens Royal Lancers launches a Black Hornet, Nano UAV

toward smaller highly specialised armies , soldiers soldiers will have to rely more on machines rather than man-power for backup. Technology like the microdrone called a Switchblade, which can be carried in a backpack. Carried in a tube, it is launched in the field and with the use of a set of first person-view goggles the operator can see what it sees. Equipped with a grenade sized warhead this sort of smart microdrone technology may be the only back-up a soldier may need in the field.
While a soldier’s ability to scan, transmit and receive more detailed information on the battlefield will increase, The potential disruption caused by hacking and jamming technology will also ensure that this reliance on technology will also become its greatest weakness. In the field the technology offers greater capability for soldiers to connect, link up, with for example, helicopters that are coming to give them support, or fast jets or vehicles in order to increase their situational awareness. This can increase the effectiveness of operations but it must be weighed against the fact that you can’t rely on electronics, particularly networked electronics that can be hacked and is susceptible to crash .

Orichalcum: the Metal of the Gods

Rumored by Ancient Greeks to have been mined in Atlantis, Orichalcum, the Metal of the Gods has been recovered off the coast of Sicily, from a ship that sunk 2,600 years ago. Its composition and origin argued over, Orichalcum’s existence has long been thought a myth by scholars and historians alike.

The 39 Orichalucum ingots recovered
The 39 Orichalucum ingots recovered

Orichalcum first appears in the 7th century BC in the Homeric hymn dedicated to Aphrodite, dated to the 630s attributed to Hesiod. According to Plato’s Critias, the three outer walls of the Temple to Poseidon and Cleito on Atlantis were clad respectively with brass, tin, and the third outer wall, which encompassed the whole citadel, “flashed with the red light of orichalcum”. The interior walls, pillars and floors of the temple were completely covered in orichalcum, and the roof was variegated with gold, silver, and orichalcum. In the center of the temple stood a pillar of orichalcum, on which the laws of Poseidon and records of the first son princes of Poseidon were inscribed.

Orichalcum also appears in the writings of the Jews. In Antiquities of the Jews Josephus, wrote that the vessels in the Temple of Solomon were made of orichalcum. Pliny the Elder points out that the metal had lost currency due to the mines being exhausted. Pseudo-Aristotle in De mirabilibus auscultationibus describes orichalcum as a shining metal produced during the smelting of copper with the addition of “calmia” (zinc oxide).

Rare Orichalcum coins from Ancient Rome
Rare Orichalcum coins from Ancient Rome

The cast metal which possibly came from Greece or Asia Minor was being delivered to Gela in southern Sicily when it sunk off its coast. The ship that was carrying them was likely caught in a storm just when it was about to enter the port. The 39 ingots recovered from the wreck were destined to be used in workshops in the making of high quality decorations.
“The wreck dates to the first half of the sixth century. It was found about 1,000 feet from Gela’s coast at a depth of 10 feet.”
-Sebastiano Tusa, Sicily’s superintendent of the Sea Office.

A total of 39 Orichalum ingots were recovered from the sea floor surrounding the wreckage, a truly rare and unique find. Considering researches only new of the metal through the study of ancient text and a few ornamental objects. Nothing similar has ever been found, in fact the metal’s very existence was long considered false.

Sicilian Team excavating the Ship wreck
Sicilian Team excavating the Ship wreck

The mysterious metal was said to have been forged by Cadmus, according to the ancient Greeks, a largely mythical character of Greeko-Phoenician origin. It was not however until the fourth century B.C. Greek philosopher Plato cited it in the Critias dialogue that the legend of orichalcum was birthed into the world. Plato, in describing Atlantis as flashing “with the red light of orichalcum,” wrote that the metal, second only in value to gold, was mined in Atlantis and furnished Poseidon’s temple interior, walls, columns and floors.

With the find off the Sicilian Coast, the metal’s authenticity of which there is little doubt. Today most scholars agree orichalcum is a brass-like alloy, which was made in antiquity by cementation in a crucible. Adding and aiding the process with the reaction of zinc ore, charcoal and copper metal. Through further investigation conducted with X-ray fluorescence,the composition of the material is now confirmed. The 39 ingots are an alloy made with 75-80 percent copper, 15-20 percent zinc and small percentages of nickel, lead and iron.

“The finding confirms that about a century after its foundation in 689 B.C., Gela grew to become a wealthy city with artisan workshops specialized in the production of prized artifacts,” Tusa said. To add fire to the debate and shrouding the metal in even more mystery are the findings of Enrico Mattievich, a retired professor of physics who taught at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). According to Mattievich the ingots are not properly made from orichalcum. “It appears they are lumps of latone metal, an alloy of copper, zinc and lead,” Mattievich, who has led a number of studies in physics applied to mineralogy, paleontology and archaeology, is one of the scholars who disagree on orichalcum being a brass based metal.

Orichalcum twins found in Central America
Orichalcum twins found in Central America

Further confusing the debate, while other scholars equated the mysterious metal to amber and to other copper based alloys, Mattievich believes orichalcum has its roots in the Peruvian Andes and in the Chavín civilization that developed there from 1200 B.C. to 200 B.C. As chronicled in his book “Journey to the Mythological Inferno” Mattievic claims that the ancient Greeks had discovered America, and there, a metallic alloy “with fire-like reflections” similar to Plato’s description was found in a set of metallic jaguars of Chavin style, which were revealed to be made of 9 percent copper, 76 percent gold and 15 percent silver.
Whatever the origins and nature of orichalcum, Tusa’s team plans to excavate the shipwreck and bring to surface the entire cargo. “It will provide us with precious information on Sicily’s most ancient
economic history,” Tusa said.

What Happened to Malaysian Airline MH17

Pro-Russian Ukraine Rebels at crash site of Malaysia Airlines plane
Rebels at the crash site of the Malaysia Airlines plane

Whatever Happened to the Investigation into the Downing of Malaysian Airline flight MH17

Most of the facts now indicate that the Ukrainian Air Force brought down the Boeing 777.  But Why, and by whom? New evidence shows An Su-25 Ukraine fighter-jet from the 299th squadron with the hull numbers 06,07,08 and 38, were in the air on the 17 July 2014 at the time the Malaysian passenger plane went down.

Malaysian Boeing 777, MH17,  was shot by Su-25, hull number 08, which was piloted by Lt. Col. Ukrainian Air Force Dmytro Yakatsuts, who from July 18 to this day is in the United Arab Emirates. Coincidently the Kiev center manager, Anna Petrenko, unexpectedly went on vacation on the morning of July 18th, from which she did not return.

Malaysian Airlines MH 17 Crash Site
Malaysian Airlines MH 17 Crash Site

The Ukrainian Government controls the official ‘investigation’into the tragedy that befell the domestic air liner. Consequently, the official ‘investigation’ will contradict the one clear piece of evidence that points to the Ukraine as the perpetrators of this crime, the left fuselage panel right next to the pilot, where an enormous fusillade of bullets were fired opening a huge gash into the wall there, firing directly into the pilot, as was first reported by the retired German Lufthansa pilot, Peter Haisenko.

International Forensic Investigators search for bodies through the wreckage.

A Ukrainian soldier who was part of the crew that operated the supposed missile-battery that took down the Malaysian MH17 airliner on July 17th has

testified publicly for the first time, saying that the missile-battery was operated by the Ukrainian military, not by the rebels as asserted, and that he and his former crew-mates who operated it laughed when they heard their Government say that this missile-battery was operated by the rebels.

The reliable evidence that has been adduced since then has only added further details and clarifications to his reconstruction of the downing-event. However, the official ‘investigation’ will not be consistent with it. Nor will any ‘explanation’ that comes from any government or international organization that is supporting the Ukrainian Government in its war against Russia.

Malaysia Airlines MH17 Ukraine
What’s left of the investigation into the downing of Malaysia Airlines flight MH17

But why would the Ukrainian Government be complicit in doing this?  In order-” to chain the Russian bear, pull out its teeth and ultimately have it stuffed.” As President Putin put it.  U.S. President Obama needed a trigger to provoke  EU and other U.S.-allied nations into imposing heavily increased economic sanctions against Russia. As soon as this plane was downed, both the Ukrainian Government and the Obama Administration claimed that they possessed convincing proof that it had been downed by pro-Russian rebels provoking the U.S. led coalition into hiked sanctions against Russia. A policy dating back to the invasion of Ukraine and annexation of Crimea.  Putin responded by banning the import of western foodstuffs.

It was the Bush administration that propagated the air of insecurity that has provoked Russia into a defensive position. A trend adopted by Obama’s administration when promoting the perception that Ukraine was being appropriated into the West. Once seen by Russia as the cornerstone of strategic balance, Bush also abandoned the anti-ballistic missile treaty, and built a missile shield on Russia’s borders; bringing Nato to Russia’s doorstep, offering east Europeans “security” while exacerbating Russian Insecurity.

Space is Realestate

Terraformars40 years after the Apollo missions, we still don’t have a complete picture of the Moon’s economic potential. We are already dependent on orbiting satellites for communication, navigation, weather-forecasting and resource management. But Space travel demands resources, and lots of them. Hydrogen and oxygen for rocket propellant and water to keep astronauts alive. Water has the unfortunate characteristic of being both heavy and incompressible, meaning it’s very difficult and expensive to lift large amounts of it into space. Unless NASA discovers an alternative to powering our spacecraft and defeating gravity, it’s infeasible to carry the rocket fuel that we’d need for the expeditions outside of the Earth. Initiatives that would decrease the burden of its overpopulation and demand for its limited resources. If the colonization and exploration of our solar neighborhood is to become a reality we need some kind of platform, either in near-earth orbit or on the moon from which we can launch these expeditions from.

A Water Mining Robot Proposed for Mars
A Water Mining Robot Proposed for Mars

Space exploration could expose the global economy to potentially unlimited external resources of energy and raw materials. NASA wants to produce water, oxygen, and hydrogen on the Moon and Mars. To colonize other planets, rather than transporting them from Earth it is imperative that we find a way of soliciting these gases and liquids from moons and planets. In 2018 NASA wants to land a rover on the Moon in the hopes that it can extract hydrogen, water, and oxygen so that Curiosity’s successor can convert the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere into oxygen in 2020 when it lands on Mars.

Titanium ore 10 times richer than on Earth
Titanium ore 10 times richer than on Earth

At the same time the Techs at NASA also plan to put a rover on the Moon that will carry the RESOLVE (Regolith and Environment Science and Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction) payload. NASA’s previous experiments uncovered evidence for deposits of water ice and other volatiles trapped in cold ground less than 100 Kelvin or minus 173 degrees Celsius.

RESOLVE will contain the various tools necessary to carry out

Mars Rover
Mars Rover

in-situ experiments, enabling it to sift through the Moon’s loose surface soil and heat it up, looking for traces of hydrogen and oxygen, which can then be combined to make water. RESOLVE will apply this method to the regalith, if there’s water ice on the surface of the Moon, looking for evidence of water vapor coming out of the heated soil. Scientists at NASA know from the early studies of the Apollo samples that the lunar soil contains hydrogen, helium, carbon, nitrogen, and at high latitudes, hydroxide and perhaps water, and these may also be exploitable by the Rover and its support lab. Similarly Curiosity’s successor would have the same payload attached to it, currently being fitted out by NASA and will hopefully launch in 2020. This second IRSU experiment is planned to extract carbon dioxide from the Martian atmosphere, filter out dust, and then process the CO2 into oxygen.

Future missions planned by the Space Agency include large-scale ISRU devices capable of producing significant amounts of hydrogen, oxygen, and water on the Moon or Mars. This would probably be the most important advance since we first landed on the Moon, and Humanity’s first attempts at bioengineering and terra-forming its solar neighbors. Lunar Surface rocks have been found to contain raw materials such as magnesium, aluminum, silicon, iron and titanium. Other lunar materials which might be imported to the Earth include platinum group elements currently valued at between $20,000 and $50,000 per kilo, extracted from iron meteorites and equally valuable rare-earth elements which are known to be concentrated in some regions of the Moon

An artist Interpretation of a Terraformed Mars
An artist Interpretation of a Terraformed Mars

Scientists are discovering new and invaluable resources trapped beneath the Lunar surface, more than enough materials to justify mining on the moon and establishing a base there to house a colony that could perhaps take them to Mars and do the same there. Consider the importation of lunar resources to the Earth’s surface where they would contribute directly to the global economy. If the Moon can provide us with a platform from which we can explore space than Mars can provide us with the same in the hopes of exploring the moons and gas giants of the outer planets. Who can say what future technologies and Scientific discoveries will bring from siphoning gases from Jupiter or mining the fertile halos of Saturn, all too have moons and contain within the promise of Life.

Obesity’s Magic Bullet

The first step in developing a drug that controls obesity has been undertaken by the Miracle workers of the Harvard Stem Cell Institute (HSCI), who have identified two compounds that can execute just that in human cells.fat-cell-color-conversion

Chad Cowan the HSCI principal faculty member and his team in conjunction with Harvard affiliate Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), say they have created a system using human stem cells to screen for compounds that have the potential to turn white, or “bad,” fat cells into brown, or “good,” fat cells. 

The road from experimental research to safe product fit for human consumption though, is a long and arduous one.  Point of fact: the two compounds discovered so far target the same molecule, and that molecule plays a role in the inflammatory response. In long-term use, a patient’s immunity could be severely compromised.  This alone should send alarm bells through the medical community, however due to the immediacy in demand for this magic bullet the fruits of this research has already appeared in the form of a treatment approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for rheumatoid arthritis.

To understand the complexity of the problem we need to first

Brown Fat cells within White Fat tissue
Brown Fat cells within White Fat tissue

examine how the process works. White fat cells store energy as lipids, these contribute to obesity, type 2 diabetes, and ultimately heart disease, while brown fat lowers triglyceride levels, reduce the insulin resistance associated with type 2 diabetes, and eliminate white fat.  When the body takes in excess energy, it is stored as lipids in white fat cells. When a body receives too many calories without the balance of those being burned off through activity , adult stem cells in the body produce more white fat cells, adding to a person’s obesity.  What Cowan and his team have discovered are two small molecules that convert fat stem cells, which normally would produce white fat, into brown-like fat cells. These brown-like fat cells burn excess energy and thereby reduce the size and numbers of white fat cells.

fatcellsAnimal Experimentation Research has shown there are some compounds that have this same kind of effect and that when you remove them, the effect goes away. What Cowan’s team’s research has shown was a stable conversion of white fat cells to brown cells.
“You’re constantly replenishing your fat tissue,” Cowan explained, “so if you were on a medication to convert the cells, each new fat cell would be more metabolically active and would convert to brown fat over time,” reducing the likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes or any of the other conditions related to a build-up of fat.”

 “We found these two compounds by screening a library of about 1,000 compounds,” Cowan said, “so we know that if we have access to the typical pharmaceutical company library of 1.5 to 2 million compounds, we will find others.”

Cowan is currently in discussion with several pharmaceutical companies about continuing the work.

psiance-fixion megazine

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