Tag Archives: Homer

Orichalcum: the Metal of the Gods

Rumored by Ancient Greeks to have been mined in Atlantis, Orichalcum, the Metal of the Gods has been recovered off the coast of Sicily, from a ship that sunk 2,600 years ago. Its composition and origin argued over, Orichalcum’s existence has long been thought a myth by scholars and historians alike.

The 39 Orichalucum ingots recovered
The 39 Orichalucum ingots recovered

Orichalcum first appears in the 7th century BC in the Homeric hymn dedicated to Aphrodite, dated to the 630s attributed to Hesiod. According to Plato’s Critias, the three outer walls of the Temple to Poseidon and Cleito on Atlantis were clad respectively with brass, tin, and the third outer wall, which encompassed the whole citadel, “flashed with the red light of orichalcum”. The interior walls, pillars and floors of the temple were completely covered in orichalcum, and the roof was variegated with gold, silver, and orichalcum. In the center of the temple stood a pillar of orichalcum, on which the laws of Poseidon and records of the first son princes of Poseidon were inscribed.

Orichalcum also appears in the writings of the Jews. In Antiquities of the Jews Josephus, wrote that the vessels in the Temple of Solomon were made of orichalcum. Pliny the Elder points out that the metal had lost currency due to the mines being exhausted. Pseudo-Aristotle in De mirabilibus auscultationibus describes orichalcum as a shining metal produced during the smelting of copper with the addition of “calmia” (zinc oxide).

Rare Orichalcum coins from Ancient Rome
Rare Orichalcum coins from Ancient Rome

The cast metal which possibly came from Greece or Asia Minor was being delivered to Gela in southern Sicily when it sunk off its coast. The ship that was carrying them was likely caught in a storm just when it was about to enter the port. The 39 ingots recovered from the wreck were destined to be used in workshops in the making of high quality decorations.
“The wreck dates to the first half of the sixth century. It was found about 1,000 feet from Gela’s coast at a depth of 10 feet.”
-Sebastiano Tusa, Sicily’s superintendent of the Sea Office.

A total of 39 Orichalum ingots were recovered from the sea floor surrounding the wreckage, a truly rare and unique find. Considering researches only new of the metal through the study of ancient text and a few ornamental objects. Nothing similar has ever been found, in fact the metal’s very existence was long considered false.

Sicilian Team excavating the Ship wreck
Sicilian Team excavating the Ship wreck

The mysterious metal was said to have been forged by Cadmus, according to the ancient Greeks, a largely mythical character of Greeko-Phoenician origin. It was not however until the fourth century B.C. Greek philosopher Plato cited it in the Critias dialogue that the legend of orichalcum was birthed into the world. Plato, in describing Atlantis as flashing “with the red light of orichalcum,” wrote that the metal, second only in value to gold, was mined in Atlantis and furnished Poseidon’s temple interior, walls, columns and floors.

With the find off the Sicilian Coast, the metal’s authenticity of which there is little doubt. Today most scholars agree orichalcum is a brass-like alloy, which was made in antiquity by cementation in a crucible. Adding and aiding the process with the reaction of zinc ore, charcoal and copper metal. Through further investigation conducted with X-ray fluorescence,the composition of the material is now confirmed. The 39 ingots are an alloy made with 75-80 percent copper, 15-20 percent zinc and small percentages of nickel, lead and iron.

“The finding confirms that about a century after its foundation in 689 B.C., Gela grew to become a wealthy city with artisan workshops specialized in the production of prized artifacts,” Tusa said. To add fire to the debate and shrouding the metal in even more mystery are the findings of Enrico Mattievich, a retired professor of physics who taught at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). According to Mattievich the ingots are not properly made from orichalcum. “It appears they are lumps of latone metal, an alloy of copper, zinc and lead,” Mattievich, who has led a number of studies in physics applied to mineralogy, paleontology and archaeology, is one of the scholars who disagree on orichalcum being a brass based metal.

Orichalcum twins found in Central America
Orichalcum twins found in Central America

Further confusing the debate, while other scholars equated the mysterious metal to amber and to other copper based alloys, Mattievich believes orichalcum has its roots in the Peruvian Andes and in the Chavín civilization that developed there from 1200 B.C. to 200 B.C. As chronicled in his book “Journey to the Mythological Inferno” Mattievic claims that the ancient Greeks had discovered America, and there, a metallic alloy “with fire-like reflections” similar to Plato’s description was found in a set of metallic jaguars of Chavin style, which were revealed to be made of 9 percent copper, 76 percent gold and 15 percent silver.
Whatever the origins and nature of orichalcum, Tusa’s team plans to excavate the shipwreck and bring to surface the entire cargo. “It will provide us with precious information on Sicily’s most ancient
economic history,” Tusa said.


Was Saturn Once Our Sun?

Saturn Devouring his Children By Goya

With the onset of civilisation all the archetypes were already present: the mother & child, the sacrificial hero, the universal father and so on were present in all of the myths.  This preoccupation by early cultures to ascribe universal events to terrestrial experiences appears to be a global phenomenon.  If one were to examine the works of the classic Philosophers like Virgil, Ovid, Homer & Hesiod one would discover they all harken back to a golden age when different gods ruled the World, the shape and face of which were much stranger than the cosmic laws that govern us today.  This can also be said of the architectural works of the Maya, the Ancient Khmer Peoples & others.  All witness to an age of an unstable Solar System in ancient times.  Egyptian High priests refered to this epoch as the age of the primordial Gods.  A time when it was the planet Saturn that bathed our Earth in light, long before our present Sun existed.  According to the works of controversial theorist Immanuel Velikovsky Venus appeared a terrifying comet in the heavens & Mars the pupil in God’s eye.  In this age the planets in our Solar System followed different paths than they do today, in perfect alignment & in a Polar Configuration.  The five planets orbited the Sun as a single linear unit, which rotated around a point close to Saturn, before its break-up at the end of the Golden Age. The violence of this revolution inspired the myth-making epoch of human history.  Velikovsky claimed that Saturn was once closer to the Earth and dominated its sky, overseeing the Mythic Golden age that Plato & Homer reminisced about in their writings.  Archaic symbols of this age still surround us, some as icons of the world’s great religions, and they are celebrated in festivals & cultural rites world-wide.  The Egyptians associated this sun with Amon Ra, in Mesopatania this primordial sun was identified as a wheel & given the name Shamesh that translates as Saturn.Sumerian Relief Depicting Planets Inside a Hexagram

The god Saturn was known by many other names by various cultures & civilisations throughout History, particularly the West.  Saturn was an important Roman God primarily associated with Agriculture & Harvest. Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun & the second largest planet in the Solar System.  Saturn-day or Saturday is also the sixth day of the week according to the Gregorian calendar.  According to the latest satellite imagery Saturn interestingly enough has a six-sided-polygon at its North Pole.  Further more we can draw a Hexagram Star motif from this Hexagon shape.  A pentagram can be drawn inside the hexagram to form 2 inter-locking triangles. By applying simple Geometry we can also find combinations of the triple A six-sided star, a six-sided polygon, six smaller triangles, as well as a triad of 60° angles.  In the southern Babylonian dialect Saturn is Stur.  In this language where each letter of the alphabet has a corresponding number S is equal to 60, T equals 4 of00, U is a 6 & T 200, an equivalent of 666.  According to ancient Sumerian texts the god of Harvest was called Ninurta, this translates in English as Saturn. As depicted on one cylinder seal seated on the throne is Ninurta the god of Harvest brandishing a plough. in the upper left corner is a depiction of a solar system of planets.

Squatter-man Petroglyphs High energy Plasma Discharge

The signs of the Zodiac to the ancient myths are the petroglyphs of the primordial epoch projected onto the sky of a future time by the ancient philosophers during the Golden age, in an attempt to implant the information permanently on the conscious psyche of the world mind through the localisation of the imagery.  Mount Olympus is the central focus of Greek Mythology, It is the seat of the Gods, or the central Pillar.  The Gods being celestial, this can be interpreted as representing the Coaxial line from the earth to the heavens which formed the heirarchy of planets.  At its summit was Saturn.  The Squatter Man petroglyphs for instance are a universal image depicted on the walls & artifacts of almost every culture on the planet. It is almost as though at a certain moment in prehistory the ancients were painting stylised individual rock art and then, almost instantaneously, they were painting strange white shapes and figures. Every one started at the same time dipicting the same images, almost as though they were inspired by the same event. This is only possible if what ever occured was a global event & was seen in the sky or the heavens.  plasma Scientists postulate that these figures depict high energy electrical phenomona occuring in the sky.  Anthony Peratt has matched the motifs of these rock paintings to electric discharges recorded in experiments in plasma physics.

The Planet Saturn

The presence of the god Saturn to ancient Peoples was known to the likes of the Greeks who knew him as Kronos, to the Sea-faring Phoenicians in the east he was El, Saturnus in Rome, Stur in Chaldea, and Ninurta in ancient Sumeria.  His worship is at the heart of most pagan religions.  The fiery heart & cross that are synonymous with the Christian Savior Jesus or the Emmanuel, also adorn the idols of the Maya, and may be found around the neck of Quetzalcoatl, whom they believed was a tall bearded white man.  The sacred heart was also a symbol of sacrifice to the Aztecs, who were practicing this ritual by ripping out the beating hearts of their vanquished neighbors.

Cloud System Revolving Around Hexagram or Cube

Similarities can be observed in Christian symbols such as the dagger & chalice, tools used by pre-Columbian south American priests in their bloody rituals.  The hexagon which is verily used by the Jewish faith is identical to that found in Hinduism.  The six-sided star dates back 10,000 years & is referred to as Yantra & appears with the Gods Kali, Shiva.  The Symbol also adorns the shrines dotting Nepal & on Tibetan Mandala; on Shinto shrines of Japan, & even the Islamic faith of Mohammad.  The black stone at Mecca according to islamic tradition dates back to the time of Adam & Eve.  Circumambulation is performed around the kaaba in Mecca in a counter-clockwise direction following the direction of the planet’s cloud system.